Connect with us


Numeraire (NMR) is now available on Coinbase







Why Cuba Is Primed for Bitcoin Adoption

Like much of the rest of the world, Cuba is undergoing one of its worst financial years in some time. But unique circumstances may lead it down a path to Bitcoin.




About the Author

Boaz Sobrado is a data analyst and the founder of, a Cuban tourism site. The opinions expressed here are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Decrypt.

Cuba is having one of its worst years in recent memory—but, as a consequence, a perfect storm is brewing on the island nation with regard to Bitcoin adoption.

Cubans live under a high level of financial censorship, as well as rampant inflation. Meanwhile, their access to foreign currencies has been heavily curtailed this year due to COVID and US sanctions. This has increased the appeal of cryptocurrencies, many of which act as censorship-resistant stores of value.

The usefulness of censorship-resistant technology may not be clear to people living in advanced economies, but it is perfectly clear to Cubans. Cuba is a country where people live under oppressive financial censorship. This is partly due to the communist government, which has strict rules on how private businesses can operate and what people can do with their money. 

But it is also due to the censorship imposed by the American embargo, which makes doing international transactions nearly impossible for ordinary Cubans. Just recently the Trump administration announced measures that forced Western Union to cease operations in Cuba in this month, making it nearly impossible for millions of Cuban Americans to send remittances back home.

This measure comes at the worst possible time. 

The Cuban economy is expected to contract by 8% in 2020, on the back of an already weak performance in 2019. COVID-19 has put a dent in two important industries: tourism and remittances. Havana’s airport was closed from March until November. Remittance flows from the US to Cuba dropped approx 50% from $6 billion in 2019 to $3 billion in 2020.

Further, the government’s attempts at reform are leading to the early stages of hyperinflation. Food prices have gone up by several multiples within this year and the Cuban peso has lost half its value against the US dollar in the last 12 months in informal markets.

In the 1990s, when inflation was rampant in Cuba, Cubans looking to preserve the value of their savings turned to foreign hard currencies such as the US dollar. However, COVID-19 has effectively destroyed tourism, which was one of the main sources of hard currency for the population.

We now have a situation where many Cubans are looking for a way to both receive money from abroad and preserve the value of their savings. And they are increasingly turning toward cryptocurrencies. The popularity of Bitcoin in Google Trends is at an all time high. New services, such as, make it easy for Cuban Americans to send money back home using cryptocurrencies. 

The trade works in the following way: Cuban Americans buy Bitcoin in the US and sell it for cash in Cuba. This way they can help their friends and family pay bills and buy food. On the other side of the transaction are Cubans buying Bitcoin because they are looking to speculate, preserve their wealth, or transact with the outside world.

Most Cubans would prefer to hold on to US dollars, either digital or physical, like many Venezuelans do. But often the reality is that they can hardly get access to them, and even if they do, they constantly have to be wary of their funds being seized—either by domestic authorities in the case of physical dollar bills, or by over-compliant foreign financial institutions enforcing US sanctions. 

For these reasons it may be a great irony of the 21st century that one of the first countries with widespread adoption of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies could be a communist country where the average car is older than the average person.


The views and opinions expressed by the author are for informational purposes only and do not constitute financial, investment, or other advice.

Continue Reading


Trader Calls for Bitcoin Plunge to $17,000 as Selling Pressure Mounts




  • Bitcoin has seen some intense turbulence throughout the past few hours, with the selling pressure seen in the mid-$19,000 region once again proving to be too much for it to handle
  • The crypto has been caught within a persistent bout of consolidation throughout the past few days, with bulls guarding the mid-$18,000 region as bears continue building massive sell walls around $19,500
  • The frequency of the rejections seen at this price region is a grim sign that could mean downside is imminent
  • One trader is now watching for a move back down to the $17,000 region, where he expects it to find some robust support
  • Whether or not this decline takes place will likely depend largely on the cryptocurrency’s continued reaction to the $19,000 level

Bitcoin has been struggling to gain enough buy-side support to send it past its all-time highs currently set within the upper-$19,000 region.

The selling pressure here has proven to be quite intense on multiple occasions in the past, and where it trends next will depend largely on how it continues reacting to this level.

Because it did face a rejection here overnight, one trader is expecting Bitcoin to nuke towards $17,000 before finding any significant support.

Bitcoin Tries to Hold Above $19,000 Following Overnight Selloff

At the time of writing, Bitcoin is trading down just over 2% at its current price of $18,980, which is just below the key $19,000 level.

It has been trying to reclaim this crucial price as support, but there is some intense selling pressure at the moment that is creating a headwind.

If it can break and hold above this level, it could be poised to see some serious upside in the days and weeks ahead.

Analyst Eyes Move to $17,000 Following Latest Rejection

One trader believes that the overnight rejection at the $19,500 indicates underlying weakness amongst bulls, which may suggest that a move down towards $17,000 is imminent.

He shared a chart showing this as a downside target, noting that this move will liquidate bulls and bring BTC into a support zone that could spark an even stronger move higher.

“Liquidate all bulls and fill by bids BTC.”


Image Courtesy of Mac. Source: BTCUSD on TradingView.

The coming few days should provide some serious insight into where the entire market is set to trend in the days, weeks, and months ahead.

If Bitcoin can reclaim and hold $19,000, it could mean that another move higher is imminent.

Featured image from Unsplash.
Charts from TradingView.


Continue Reading


Money Reimagined: Bitcoin vs. Gold Is a Battle of Narratives




One reason I feel privileged to write about digital money is the ideas and technologies it seeks to disrupt aren’t just a few years or decades old. They date back centuries, even millennia.

Like gold, for example. 

As bitcoin’s price has soared to new all-time highs and a parade of big-name investment professionals such as BlackRock CEO Larry Fink and hedge fund legend Stanley Druckenmiller have talked up its prospects as a provably scarce store-of-value, a war of words has sprung up between gold bugs and bitcoin fans. 

Peter Schiff, one of the loudest proponents of gold as both a store-of-value investment and as a global standard for backing currencies, has been especially triggered. This past week saw a flurry of tweets from Schiff, labeling bitcoin a speculative instrument that lacks gold’s physical safe haven properties and complaining about the lack of airtime given to gold advocates versus bitcoiners. (Check the replies for colorful responses from bitcoin fans.)

This fight reflects something much bigger than a Twitter troll spat. It stems from an audacious effort by the crypto community to rewrite an ancient narrative. 

Ultimately, winning the narrative is what will matter in this competition. As we’ve discussed before, a currency can have a host of worthy properties, but if there’s no belief in it, if the story doesn’t resonate, it won’t be accepted as money among a community of users. 


(Nick Fewings/Unsplash)

Gold: Of kings and conquest

Gold’s proponents frequently mention the qualities that make it a sound store-of-value with which to hedge against fiat currency debasement. Let’s run through them:

It’s durable. Gold can’t be destroyed. 

It’s fungible. In its pure state, bullion holds the same value regardless of which bar you have in your hand, enabling its acceptance as both a medium of exchange and store-of-value. 

It’s divisible. After smelting, gold can be broken down into coins and ingots of any size. 

It’s portable. Within limits, you can transport gold from one place to another. 

And most important, it’s scarce. Setting aside the future viability or otherwise of asteroid mining, the slow and expensive pace at which the world’s known gold reserves can be extracted means that, unlike fiat paper currencies, its supply can’t be expanded at will. 

Note, these properties are also ascribed to bitcoin – rightly, in my mind, and with a superiority to gold. (Bitcoin is certainly more portable and more easily divisible, and its scarcity is arguably more reliable.) 

But while durability, fungibility, divisibility, portability and scarcity are necessary preconditions for sound, non-fiat money, they’re not enough on their own. There are other precious metals, such as silver and platinum, with similar qualities. And there are altcoins literally built from the same code as bitcoin. What ultimately distinguishes both gold and bitcoin from their competitors is the wide collective belief in their shared value.

For gold, this belief is not only widely held. It runs deep. Very deep. 

Gold is the stuff of fairy tales such as the one about King Midas. It powered the conquest of the Americas, encapsulated in the search for El Dorado. It became synonymous with wealth and power.

And with beauty – to the point where we talk of gold’s beauty as if it’s innate or intrinsic. But beauty is culturally constructed. While evidence suggests gold’s use in jewelry preceded its use as money, there’s a circular, reinforcing logic to the aesthetic idea. Centuries of associating gold with wealth and power elevated its beauty in our minds.

In other words, there’s a powerful feedback loop arising from the “all that glitters is gold” story. It reinforces its cultural power – an ephemeral, intangible concept that’s actually more important than those five aforementioned physical qualities in giving gold its longstanding status as a universal store-of-value. 

Bitcoin: Math for the masses

So, as you can tell, those driving the bitcoin narrative face a daunting competitor, a phenomenon with millennia-old cultural heft. 

Yet, this moment feels ripe for a new story. We’ve entered a digital age, where the physical world is increasingly shaped and managed by a separate computing world. That world needs a “digital gold,” not a physical gold. 


(Sean Gallup/Getty Images)

And it turns out the way to create that digital gold is by combining the power of math – another ancient, all-powerful human invention that rules how we live – with the power of collective human activity. That combination is what makes the bitcoin story so compelling. 

At its essence, the proof-of-work consensus model (which lets us trust the transactions recorded in bitcoin’s distributed blockchain ledger) hinges on the fact that it’s mathematically really, really hard to find a randomly chosen number within a data set comprising quadrillions of other numbers. There’s something quite universal – literally, of the universe – in that. 

But bitcoin’s claim to provable scarcity, which is fundamental to the store-of-value narrative that institutional investor big shots are now globbing onto, depends on more than its math – which, after all, can be and has been replicated in altcoin forks of the code. It also stems from mass human engagement and investment (of time, money and energy). 

Bitcoin’s predictably scarce money supply depends on it being prohibitively expensive for anyone to take control of the network and on there being a sufficiently large, committed, international pool of developers working on keeping its code secure. 

That’s where the widening resonance of the narrative becomes self-fulfilling. As more and more people believe in bitcoin, more and more will invest in it, which makes it increasingly expensive to attack it. Meanwhile, wider belief means more and more developers care about protecting bitcoin’s value. Both factors make it increasingly secure, which in turn increasingly strengthens its scarcity claim.

To me, this is what makes the bitcoin story more appealing than that of gold. Rather than stories of kings and conquest, it’s about human engagement under the governance of universal mathematical principles. 

This epic narrative battle has a long way to go. I look forward to chronicling its development.

Central bank gold-buying spree

Speaking of gold, this chart in a story by financial news outlet Finbold jumped out at me. From a survey of the 12 largest economies in the world, Finbold found the central banks of U.S., China, Russia and India had accumulated a whopping 208.34 tons of gold between March and early-December this year. Their combined tally dwarfs an aggregate liquidation of 12.78 tons by the eight other countries in that list. It’s not clear where Finbold got its data from and it should be noted that central bank gold reserve information is notoriously difficult to confirm. But with that caveat in mind, the numbers are worth exploring.

Source: Finbold

Why the big buildup in gold holdings by these four countries since the COVID-19 pandemic became a global crisis? The natural answer is that, like people, governments see gold as a hedge against economic and monetary stress, and the crisis has elevated the risk of that. But thinking about the four countries’ individually offers some other hypotheses. 

The U.S. and Indian numbers are somewhat self-explanatory. For the U.S. Federal Reserve, its massive mid-pandemic monetary expansion necessarily required the buildup of a giant balance sheet of financial assets, of which gold was a part. And India, mostly for cultural reasons, has always been a giant gold buyer, so these numbers are perhaps just an extension of that. 

The Chinese and Russian stories are potentially more interesting. Typically, these two countries buy dollars, held in U.S. government Treasury bonds, as their reserve asset. That they’re also accumulating gold could point to something of a loss of confidence in the dollar. More important, the question is what they might do with that gold in the future. 

And that’s where an insight from Jennifer Zhu Scott, executive chairman of The Commons Project, makes this interesting. Speaking during a recent Money Reimagined podcast episode, she noted that although it’s clear that China has been growing its gold reserves significantly, no one knows for sure how much it holds. That, she speculates, could put China in a powerful position to give the digital yuan clout in the international marketplace. 

“When the digital [renminbi]is launched, China doesn’t even need to say this is backed by gold. China might just make an announcement saying ‘Oh, by the way, our real gold reserve is actually 4,000 tons.’” (According to Finbold, China’s total holdings currently stand at 2,196 tons.) That would give the new digital currency a solid basis, which may encourage other countries to use it. At the same moment, it would allow China to avoid the volatility it would otherwise face when it ends capital controls, a step it must take if it is to achieve wider international usage of the yuan.

What about Russia? Well, like China, one of the reasons it is thought to be keen on creating a digital currency is to have a mechanism by which it can reduce its dependence on the dollar – in its case, to achieve the explicitly expressed goal of avoiding U.S. sanctions. A hefty gold reserve might also help it do that. 

The bigger question, as per the column above, is whether these countries will eventually be better off accumulating bitcoin, rather than gold, as the backstop to their currencies.

Global town hall

THUMBS DOWN. A column by Sarah Frier in Bloomberg’s daily “Fully Charged” newsletter this week highlighted the excessive power Facebook wields over advertisers and the audiences they seek. Small businesses that have  become dependent on Facebook ads for lead generation are now frustrated to find themselves in “Facebook jail” – locked out of the platform by an algorithm that’s supposed to police inappropriate content across its 3 billion users. The problem, Frier writes, is that “tiny glitches or misfires of this system can take down innocent users, who then have to hope a real human sees the mistake and resolves it. That’s a process that can take days, if it happens at all.” 


(Barefoot Communications/Unsplash)

The article is another example of the growing recognition that big centralized Internet platforms such as Google and Facebook have de facto monopoly powers that can harm the economy, a mindset that is feeding into the increased risk of antitrust action against them. As Frier writes, “For a company that’s fervently trying to convince lawmakers it’s not a monopoly, some advice: It’s usually a bad thing when an entire sector of the economy is dependent on your service in order to survive.” 

What’s still missing from the mainstream conversation about these problems is a discussion of how more decentralized models of media control might better address them. Whether it’s a blockchain solution or something else, we need to recognize that the centralized architecture of internet platforms is the root of their gatekeeping powers. Whatever the solution, that context is vital for how society thinks about a redesign of the social media and digital content industry.

STABLECARD. The expansion of stablecoin payments was given another boost this week when Forbes’ Michael Del Castillo ran a story saying card network Visa would give its 60 million merchants worldwide access to USDC, the stablecoin token developed by Circle Internet Financial and CoinBase. What’s interesting about that is USDC, as a bearer token, can move across borders from one party to another without the need for an intermediary. What it didn’t have was the network of users Visa offers. This looks like a solution for moving money internationally without using correspondent banks and the SWIFT messaging system. Another step toward disintermediated global finance. 

BTC YIELD. Dan Held, who heads up growth at crypto exchange Kraken, has done a favor for everyone interested in turning their otherwise static bitcoin into an interest-earning asset. There are a host of ways to earn yield on your bitcoin these days and Held, who has been experimenting with them over much of the past year, created a summary of experiences and results in a useful tweet thread

What I find interesting is that Held’s thread gives you a sense of the DIY nature of an emerging, decentralized financial system. In this system, bitcoin becomes a universal reserve asset, a form of collateral against which loans and speculative positions form. 

Note: Interest payments in bitcoin markets are mostly derived by speculators, who borrow bitcoin from entities such as BlockFi to place short-selling bets. One way they do so, as Held points out, is to play the arbitrage between spot market prices and those quoted on derivative assets such as the CME bitcoin futures of the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust, or GBTC. (Grayscale is owned by Digital Currency Group, which is also the parent company of CoinDesk.) That’s quite different from, say, earning interest on your dollar deposits at a bank, but it does look like how a lot of funding happens in the interbank market. Banks obtain short-term funds by lending out Treasury securities and other collateral, which are then used in short-selling operations. 

For now, at least, it’s people, not institutions, who are providing the collateral and liquidity need for the back office aspects of a capital market system.

Relevant reads

Why Ethereum and Bitcoin Are Very Different Investments. News you can use. The soaring price of bitcoin has in recent weeks coincided with concurrent gains in ether and other tokens. This gave the impression that retail investors are simply buying the latter as a substitutable alternative to the former. Here, CoinDesk’s Muyao Shen explains why that assumption is wrong. 

Bitcoin’s Price Is a Poor Proxy for Its Utility. As bitcoin investors celebrate its new all-time highs, CoinDesk columnist Jill Carlson is here to tell you to chill out and focus on what matters. Crypto, she reminds us, is supposed to be about expanding access to money, payments and finance, not earning legacy currency-denominated gains. 

US Lawmakers Introduce Bill That Would Require Stablecoin Issuers to Obtain Bank Charters. This bill, introduced by Rep. Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich.) and others, may be a well-intended effort to protect consumers. But the overwhelming backlash from crypto experts, including many sympathetic to Tlaib’s interest in curtailing abuses of the little guy and boosting financial access, shows how badly it was thought out. Imposing high compliance costs on innovative startups trying to boost financial access will ultimately benefit  banking behemoths that have failed to service the poor adequately. We need better-informed legislators. Nikhilesh De’s write-through looks at some of the fallout.


Sign up to receive Money Reimagined in your inbox, every Friday.



Continue Reading
Blockchain1 day ago

Spotify Thinking of Accepting Bitcoin

Blockchain1 day ago

Litecoin, Cosmos, Dogecoin Price Analysis: 03 December

Blockchain3 days ago

Greenheart Punt World Debut on DigiFinex

Blockchain2 days ago

IlCOIN Launches Blockchain-Powered VR First on Steam

Blockchain3 days ago

Mining City: A Blueprint for Success?

Blockchain4 days ago

Yearn Finance Continues Growing with Latest DeFi Acquisitions

Blockchain5 days ago

Wall Street Giant Guggenheim Fund Seeks SEC Approval to Buy Bitcoin Worth up to $500 Million

Blockchain4 days ago

Bitcoin, Ether, and XRP Weekly Market Update November 30, 2020

Blockchain4 days ago

Golff Vault 2.0’s New Launch – One-Stop Services Encrypted Bank

Blockchain4 days ago

BREAKING: Bitcoin Miners in China’s Yunnan Province Cut off from Electricity Supply

Blockchain3 days ago

Facebook Libra changes name to Diem

Blockchain4 days ago

J.P. Morgan Analysts Foreshadow Further Bitcoin Declines

Blockchain4 days ago

TRON’s BitTorrent Partnered with Huawei

Blockchain4 days ago

Nicholas Baumer Appointed Chief Marketing Officer by Tickmill

Blockchain5 days ago

Visa CEO Alfred Kelly: ‘We Are Very Interested in Cryptocurrencies’

Blockchain5 days ago

Ripple Plans To Cash Out 33% Of Its MoneyGram Stake With A Significant Profit

Blockchain4 days ago

SEC Letter Reveals China’s Crypto Ambitions Threaten US

Blockchain4 days ago

After Lightning-Paced Tier-1 Sellout, ClinTex’s CTi Token Lists on KuCoin Today

Blockchain4 days ago

5 Reasons Why Bitcoin Just Hit an All-Time High Price

Blockchain5 days ago

Bitcoin Cash Price Prediction: BCH/USD Stays Above $280; the Bulls May Regain the Ground

Blockchain4 days ago

FCA Exposes 4TFX as Crackdown on Clone Scams Continues

Blockchain5 days ago

Pizza Hut to accept Bitcoin for pies in Venezuela

Blockchain4 days ago

Ethereum Classic Hashrate Rises Following Successful Thanos Hardfork

Blockchain4 days ago

$100 Million in Bitcoin From Bitfinex Hack Has Moved

Blockchain5 days ago

What Biden’s Pick for Treasury Secretary Has Said About Bitcoin and Blockchain

Blockchain4 days ago

Bitcoin (BTC) Gives Highest Ever Monthly Closing At $19,700 in November 2020

Blockchain4 days ago

Crypto Market Cap Gained $30 Billion While BTC Eyes $19K

Blockchain4 days ago

Nearly $100 million in bitcoin tied to 2016 Bitfinex hack has been moved

Blockchain5 days ago

Historic BTC Charts Suggest 2020 Bull Run Is Just Starting

Blockchain5 days ago

SEC approval: firm seeks to invest $500 million in Bitcoins

Blockchain5 days ago

South Korea To Postpone Previously Planned Crypto Income Tax

Blockchain5 days ago

Kraken Daily Market Report for November 29 2020

Blockchain4 days ago

Bitcoin and Crypto Worth $4 Billion Seized From PlusToken Ponzi Group

Blockchain4 days ago

Russian government to recognize bitcoin as property.

Blockchain4 days ago

Coronavirus-Induced Poverty Will Bring More Bitcoin Crime in 2021: Kaspersky Report

Blockchain4 days ago

Price Analysis: AAVE bulls target $100

Blockchain4 days ago

XRP up 170% in a Month Ahead of Flare Token Airdrop: What You Need to Know

Blockchain4 days ago

Bitcoin Decimates Bears With Quick Recovery Above $19,800

Blockchain4 days ago

Wall Street Regulator Sounds Alarm over Email Phishing Scam