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The Racial Wealth Gap in America: Asset Types Held by Race

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Racial Wealth Gap

The Racial Wealth Gap

People of color have faced economic inequality for generations, and the recent wave of Black Lives Matter protests has renewed discussions on these disparities.

Compared to White families, other races have lower levels of income and net worth. They are also less likely to hold assets of any type. In fact, 19% of Black families have zero or negative net worth, while only 9% of White households have no wealth.

Today’s chart uses data from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s triennial Survey of Consumer Finances to highlight the racial wealth gap, and the proportion of households that own different kinds of assets by racial group.

Asset Types Held By Race

The financial profile between racial groups varies widely. Below is the percentage of U.S. families with each type of asset, according to the most recent survey from 2016.

  White Black Hispanic Other
Primary Residence 73% 45% 46% 54%
Vehicle 90% 73% 80% 80%
Retirement Accounts 60% 34% 30% 48%
Family-owned Business Equity 15% 7% 6% 13%
Publicly-traded Stocks 61% 31% 28% 47%

Vehicles are the most common asset across all racial groups, followed by a primary residence.

However, the level of equity—or home value less debts—families have in their houses differs by race. White families have equity of $215,800, whereas Black and Hispanic households have net housing wealth of $94,400 and $129,800 respectively.

In addition, White households are more likely to hold financial assets such as retirement accounts, family businesses, and stocks. These assets are instrumental in building wealth, and are prominent in the wealth composition of America’s richest families.

With fewer people of color holding these assets, they miss out on higher average returns than low-risk assets, as well as the power of compound interest. These portfolio differences are striking, but they are not the most important contributing factor in the racial wealth gap.

Demographic and Economic Variations

White households are also more likely to have demographic characteristics that are associated with wealth. According to the U.S. Federal Reserve, they are:

  • Older, with more than half of households age 55 and up
  • More highly educated, with 51% having some type of degree
  • Less likely to have a single parent
  • More likely to have received an inheritance

For example, 39% of White heads of households have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 23% and 17% for Black and Hispanic household heads, respectively. However, education doesn’t fully explain the wealth inequities.

Racial Wealth Gap by Education

Enormous wealth disparities exist between families with the same education level. Even in cases where Black and Hispanic household heads have obtained a bachelor’s degree, their families’ median wealth of $68,000 and $78,000 respectively is still lower than the $98,000 median wealth for White families where the head has no bachelor’s degree.

After accounting for demographic factors, researchers still found there were considerable inequities. What, then, could be primarily responsible for the racial wealth gap?

The Income Gap

While previous research found that the wealth gap is “too big” to be explained by a difference in income, a recent study from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland offers a new perspective. Focusing on White and Black U.S. households only, researchers analyzed the dynamics of wealth accumulation over time, as opposed to previous studies that considered short time periods.

They found that income inequality was the primary contributor to the racial wealth gap. According to the model, if Black and White households had earned the same labor income from 1962 onwards, the Black-to-White wealth ratio would have reached 0.9 by 2007.

Moving forward, the study concludes that policy changes will likely have a positive impact if they address issues contributing to income gaps. This includes reducing racial discrimination in the labor market, and creating programs, such as mentorships, that improve environments for specific racial subgroups.

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The post The Racial Wealth Gap in America: Asset Types Held by Race appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/racial-wealth-gap/

Blockchain

I Disagree With Armostrong: Ripple CEO on Coinbase Apolitical Policy

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Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse is the latest popular individual to criticize the apolitical approach recently taken by the cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase. Just the opposite, Ripple has offered employees paid time off to vote and volunteer in the upcoming US Presidential elections.

Ripple CEO Disagrees With Coinbase CEO

Brian Armstrong, the Chief Executive Officer of the veteran US-based digital asset platform Coinbase, raised lots of controversies recently after a blog post. He argued that his company should remain laser-focused on its mission to ascend as a cryptocurrency exchange and its employees need to avert from any political discussions or endeavors.

This so-called “apolitical” approach received reactions from people within and outside of the cryptocurrency space. Most, such as Twitter’s CEO Jack Dorsey, criticized Armstrong’s actions.

The latest to join the “I don’t agree with Armstrong bandwagon” is Brad Garlinghouse – the CEO of the payment protocol Ripple. He asserted that technology companies have the “obligation” to assist with solving social issues.

“We think about our mission as enabling an internet of value, but we seek positive outcomes for society. I think tech companies have an opportunity – but actually an obligation – to lean into being part of the solution.”

Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse. Source: Fortune
Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse. Source: Fortune

He called some of these social problems “exacerbated” by the tech sectors. As such, Ripple has decided to take the precisely opposite approach. The Silicon Valley-based company will offer its employees paid time off to volunteer and vote in the upcoming US Presidential elections.

It’s worth noting that Coinbase has seen at least 5% of its staff leaving following Armstrong’s apolitical urge. The exchange offered “generous exit packages” to all that disagreed with its politics.

Garlinghouse On The Ongoing YouTube Legal Battle

As CryptoPotato reported in April, Ripple filed a lawsuit against the most widely used video-sharing platform – YouTube. Ripple claimed that the Google-owned giant hadn’t done enough to fight the growing number of fake giveaways impersonating company executives and duping thousands and thousands of dollars from victims.

During the CNBC interview, Garlinghouse used the opportunity to criticize YouTube and its lack of appropriate actions once more. He doubled-down that Ripple doesn’t do such giveaways, and people need to be extremely cautious when they see one, even if it’s on a trusted platform.

“We didn’t need to do that [giveaways]; it doesn’t help Ripple. But what it highlights is that platforms need to take ownership of the problems they are contributing to.”

Featured Image Courtesy of VOX

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/i-disagree-with-armostrong-ripple-ceo-on-coinbase-apolitical-policy/

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The PayPal Effect: Billionaire Chamath Palihapitiya And Libra’s Chief Believe Banks Will Support Bitcoin

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PayPal’s decision to enable its users to interact with cryptocurrencies directly on its platform continues to attract popular individuals’ attention. The latest to acknowledge the significance of this move were the Head of Facebook Financial, David Marcus, and Social Capital CEO Chamath Palihapitiya.

Banks Will Follow PayPal, Says Marcus

Arguably the most significant piece of news recently came last week when the giant online payment processor PayPal announced it will soon enable its US-based customer to purchase, sell, and store several cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and Ethereum. Clients based outside the US will have this option available next year.

Apart from the immediate price reaction the news had on the cryptocurrency market, the community also accepted the announcement as a significantly bullish development.

In fact, most believe that this is just the beginning, and more centralized and trusted establishments, such as banks, will follow suit. Co-creator and board member of Facebook’s future cryptocurrency Libra, David Marcus, also weighed in on the news.

He asserted that the cryptocurrency industry is “turning a corner” as banks will pursue Bitcoin and stablecoins support.

Bitcoin Is No Longer Optional

Another famous individual to comment on the PayPal developments was the Social Capital CEO and former Facebook executive, Chamath Palihapitiya.

Being also a vocal supporter of Bitcoin, Palihapitiya, similarly to Marcus, highlighted that “every major bank is having a meeting about how to support Bitcoin. It’s no longer optional…”

Palihapitiya recently said that his first BTC purchase came at the start of the previous decade. He bought one million bitcoins for $80. Later on, he outlined the primary cryptocurrency as his best investment bet.

Social Capital’s CEO has also urged the public numerous times to allocate at least 1% of their investment portfolio in Bitcoin. He said that having such allocation helps him sleep “soundly at night.”

He also advised that people should avert from short-term price actions. Instead, he focuses on the long-term, knowing that Bitcoin’s fundamentally different attributes will protect him against the falling current financial infrastructure.

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/the-paypal-effect-billionaire-chamath-palihapitiya-and-libras-chief-believe-banks-will-support-bitcoin/

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BTC Price Analysis: Bitcoin Weakens As Wall Street In Deep Red, Is $14K Target Intact?

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Bitcoin’s price remains stuck under the key 0.618 Fibonacci level at $13,360 going into this week after little bullish momentum arrived during the opening of the US traditional markets. Wall Street, meanwhile, is painted in red.

Over shorter timeframes, it’s clear that the general sentiment is still bullish as the leading asset continues to print higher lows. However, trading volumes are beginning to decline, and there’s a growing divergence between the RSI and price action, which suggests things may turn bearish soon.

Since the Paypal news broke on October 21, over $33 billion has flooded back into the crypto space and helped the leading asset’s market dominance break back over 61% for the first time since August 2, 2020.

Price Levels to Watch in the Short-term

On the weekly BTC/USD chart, we can see that the main resistance area (red shaded zone) standing in the way of Bitcoin right now is the aforementioned Fibonacci level and the June 24, 2019 high at $13,950.

This top price point also overlaps with the upper resistance of the broadening wedge pattern (yellow lines) that BTC has been tracking inside of since April 27, which makes it a particularly strong level for bulls to overcome.

If momentum picks up again, however, and bulls manage to set a new 490+-day high, then the next likely areas of resistance will probably lie somewhere around the psychological $14K mark, the $14,400 level, and $14,600.

If the strong bearish divergence on the 4-hour timeframe plays out (light blue lines), we should expect the first area of support at the 50 EMA at $12,600, followed by the first major support zone (green shaded area) between $12,300 and $11,950. Under that, we also have the 0.5 Fibonacci level at $11,400 and the support line of the broadening wedge pattern approximately around $11K to catch any dips if prices decline further.

Total market capital: $401 billion
Bitcoin market capital: $243 billion
Bitcoin dominance: 60.5%

*Data by Coingecko.

Bitstamp BTC/USD Weekly Chart

bitcoin trading
BTC/USD chart via Tradingview.

Bitstamp BTC/USD 4-Hour Chart

Bitcoin trading BTC
BTC/USD chart via Tradingview.
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Disclaimer: Information found on CryptoPotato is those of writers quoted. It does not represent the opinions of CryptoPotato on whether to buy, sell, or hold any investments. You are advised to conduct your own research before making any investment decisions. Use provided information at your own risk. See Disclaimer for more information.

Cryptocurrency charts by TradingView.


Source: https://cryptopotato.com/btc-price-analysis-bitcoin-weakens-as-wall-street-in-deep-red-is-14k-target-intact/

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