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What is EOS? | The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide



Described as an operating system for decentralized applications (dapps) and smart contracts,  EOS was among 2017’s hottest news stories in the cryptocurrency community. EOS is currently in development by the company and claims to be faster and more scalable than competing dapp platforms.

The EOS project launched its crowd funding campaign on June 26, 2017 with a 241 day Initial Coin Offering (ICO), which has raised close to $700 million. The ICO will continue until EOS’s open-source software is scheduled to launch on June 1, 2018.

Upon release, EOS hopes to fulfill Ethereum’s as-yet unmanifest promise of becoming the backbone of a worldwide supercomputer network — making up a decentralized economy of online businesses, individuals, and applications.

In this article we’ll explore more about what this means, how EOS stacks up against its competitors, and the project’s current status by looking at the following topics:

EOS was started by Dan Larimer — creator of Steem and Bitshares — and is based on a white paper published in June of 2017. As mentioned, the platform is designed as an operating system for dapps. Just as MS Windows, Linux and Mac OSX are used as the basis for building and running computer applications (on or off networks), EOS is designed to build and run web applications across a blockchain network. EOS smart contracts and governance systems can also be used to set up Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs).

One interesting element of EOS is that the platform will not be providing its own blockchain for the network but will instead rely on its community to make their own chains (more on that later). Also unique for a cryptocurrency is the fact that EOS will have one billion total tokens, a fairly large number compared to most other coins (Bitcoin for example has a cap of 21 million).

The EOS project first gained recognition in the cryptocurrency community when it raised a record $150 million in just 5 days during its ICO and then went on to complete an unprecedented year long ICO campaign (most are only 2 to 4 weeks) to reach its final tally of $700 million. After its trading debut on the Bitfinex exchange on June 25, 2017, the price jumped by 200 percent in the first two hours of being listed.

The project doesn’t yet have a working product, but it’s clear that there’s a huge demand for what EOS is planning to offer. The platform reached an important milestone on November 29, 2017, by releasing EOS STAT — an application “test net” for developers to “evaluate, build, and test their dapps” prior to the launch of the EOS.IO platform.

Let’s take a closer look at the technology and history that spawned EOS to get an idea of what the completed network will look like.

EOS aims to solve many of the speed and scalability issues suffered by first and second generation blockchains.

Many argue that Bitcoin and its kin are simply too slow to scale for mainstream adoption (though Bitcoin is working to address this problem with the as-yet unproven Lightning Network). Similarly, Ethereum, which brought slightly-improved transaction speeds over its predecessors, is not yet up to the challenge of scaling to power a large economy (Ethereum can process only 20 transactions per second as of writing, although its developers are working on a possible solution to increase this speed).

EOS, on the other hand, is being built from the ground up to perform millions of transactions per second, making it more suitable for a complex dapp ecosystem and decentralized, tokenized economy.

EOS is also attempting to make dapp development easier and more efficient. As it stands now, developers for existing dapp platforms have to repeatedly solve many of the same issues for every dapp: account creation and recovery, multi-signature accounts, messaging, role-based permissions, etc. EOS intends to solve this problem by providing many of these common features for their developers instead of requiring developers to build these features themselves. This will allow software designers to spend less time coding the generic, and focus more of their energy on building the unique aspects of their dapps.

As mentioned, what will not supply is the blockchain itself. Instead, EOS is depending on people and groups to build their own blockchains and then use those blockchains to host the EOS.IO software.

In the beginning, there will likely be more than one blockchain, but it is theorized that eventually only one of the chains will get the majority of support from the community of token holders and block producers. This is because the most popular chain will have the most valuable token which will motivate the community to use that chain.

Each chain will use the EOS “genesis block” as its starting place for distributing tokens. The genesis block will contain a copy of the EOS data from the Ethereum blockchain, since EOS hosted its ICO using Ethereum’s platform prior to launching their own. This genesis block will include all information about what addresses have what number of tokens, and thus anyone who has ERC-20 EOS tokens will be able to claim new EOS tokens on any of these initial chains.

Token holders on a given EOS blockchain will vote for 21 “block producers” to create the blocks for that blockchain. Block producers are entities with accounts on the blockchain that validate transactions and supply resources to the network using any number of computers connected to the network. They are rewarded with EOS tokens for validating blocks.

If ever the main blockchain doesn’t have enough computing resources available, it would theoretically incentivize block producers to get better hardware in order to be able to keep their position on the main chain. That being said, there still is the potential for multiple blockchains, especially since EOS allows for interoperability and information exchange between different chains (more on this later).

Besides allowing holders to vote on block producers, EOS tokens will also allow holders to use resources on the blockchain platform, not by spending the tokens, but simply by “staking”, or holding them on a network connected computer.

The bandwidth, computational, and storage capacity of the network is allocated to dapps based on the percentage of EOS staked by that dapp. In this way, users can run dapps without having to own cryptocurrency themselves. That being said, some dapps will no doubt be paid or charge-per-use services while others will be free or “freemium” (partly free with premium services costing money). EOS promises fees will be extremely low for transactions, and it will be up to the enterprises to determine how fees will be handled.

EOS.IO uses the Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) protocol, which is similar to the Proof of Stake protocol used by many other cryptocurrencies (and which Ethereum is switching to).

Block producers are voted for on a continual basis by the network of witness nodes, which are comprised of dapp entities that stake their tokens for computing resources. Witness nodes obviously have an interest in having the best block producers possible. Would-be block producers are required to list their available computational resources, and this will no doubt figure largely into who is chosen by the network.

According to the EOS white paper, voting will be handled by a yet-to-be-determined approval process. Block producers will gain an approval rating by the network and most will be chosen automatically every 21 blocks based on this rating. One producer, however, will be chosen based on votes.

Another unique aspect of EOS is that it allows users to create accounts with readable names. This is in contrast to most other blockchain projects in which the only unique identifiers for network participants are long alphanumeric addresses. EOS accounts can also have “namespaces” that offer a sort of sub account name with the format @user.domain — “domain” being the account name, and “user” being the user name. This means accounts can have multiple users.

Accounts can interact with other accounts in various ways, including through messages or information packets that can be used to control dapp functions or smart contract-based payments.

Finally, another important function EOS will offer is the ability for two blockchains to communicate with one another without requiring them to cross-validate everything on each chain. The way EOS achieves this is by making one blockchain a “light client” of the other and then authenticating transactions by using just the headers of blocks on the other chain. Through a “proof of completeness” mechanism, it then validates that it has received all relevant information from the other chain.

This interoperability will enable both public and private blockchains to communicate with each other, which will allow for different types of dapps that might require the use of private information on a separate chain.

Now that you hopefully have a better understanding of some of the technology behind EOS, let’s take a closer look at some of the advantages and challenges of EOS compared to its competitors.

  • Less Risk of Hard Forks: During a hack on an Ethereum-based organization called DAO in June, 2016 that led to the theft of tokens, Ethereum’s entire blockchain was temporarily shut down. There was much debate on how to handle the situation and the community ended up splitting in two: one side didn’t want to return lost funds, while the other side did. The result was a hard fork producing two Ethereums (Ethereum and Ethereum Classic). This is not likely to happen with EOS since if a dapp is found to be buggy, it can simply be frozen by block producers until it’s fixed.
  • Ease of Use for Developers: EOS incorporates a web toolkit for simplified development of dapps, along with database schemas, role-based permissions, and other built in functions that make creation of dapps easier.
  • Governance: EOS has a governance structure based on a constitution of mutually accepted rules that govern the system, along with a process for modifying those rules if needed via voting processes. Many cryptocurrencies have a very difficult time reaching consensus on what to do in a given situation (e.g. the above example with Ethereum), but EOS seems to have an elegant solution to this problem.
  • Self-Sufficient: EOS blockchains will generate 5% inflation per year, which will be used to reward block producers for confirming transactions, as well as to fund three community-chosen dapp proposals per year.
  • Free Transactions: Ethereum and most other blockchains require users to pay fees to send transactions. EOS, on the other hand, uses the aforementioned block-producer model to determine how fees will be paid depending on services offered and charged for by dapp developers.
  • Fast Transactions: As already discussed, EOS will use parallel processing that can perform potentially millions of transactions per second, and at least 50,000 out of the gate according to
  • ICO Friendly: Just as with Ethereum and other smart contract platforms, ICOs can be hosted on an EOS blockchain. Given EOS’s focus on user-friendliness, however, EOS will likely offer dapps to streamline ICO smart contracts and tokens.

  • Many Competitors: Besides Ethereum, EOS has many other competitors, including NEO, Rootstock RSK and RChain. There may be room for more than one successful platform of this type, or there might not.
  • No Guarantee Tokens Will be Honored: Although it is likely the EOS community will strive to implement a blockchain that supports the Ethereum-based EOS token holders in being credited with EOS tokens on the new chains, this is not legally mandated. Since is not launching an initial blockchain, it will be up to the users to ensure this happens.
  • Potential Launch Chaos: No one knows what will happen when EOS launches and how blockchains will form and find their footing. Will competition hurt the community, or help it? Will one central chain form, or will many smaller chains form, with none of them having enough resources to make a useful ecosystem? Nothing like this has ever been done, so nobody knows.
  • Potentially More Centralized: Some argue that EOS is more centralized in its DPOS consensus protocol than other platforms such as Ethereum. Since it relies on only 21 block producers to confirm all transactions, this concern certainly seems valid, since ultimately, this would likely lead to a few large resource provider data centers running the network. Another point of concern for some is that regular users can’t audit the system unless they plan to personally run a full node. Finally, EOS relies on voting, which historically has resulted in low voter turnout in other systems, which could lead to further centralization with fewer people giving input on the direction of the platform and blockchain(s).
    For their part, have argued that EOS blockchains will still be less centralized than Bitcoin and Ethereum, which have only a few major mining pools that confirm the entire blockchains at the moment.

If after reading about EOS you are interested in investing in the token, here’s how:

EOS is available both on the project website (until June 1) and on several online exchanges. The ICO format is unusual in that it’s split into purchasing periods where the amount of tokens you get for your contribution is dependent on how much money was contributed by others during that period.

Although EOS cannot be exchanged directly for fiat in many places, it is possible to get it on Kraken, where you can deposit fiat directly via bank transfer. Otherwise, you’ll have to purchase another cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Litecoin elsewhere, such as Coinbase, and then transfer that to another exchange. Trusted exchanges that offer trades for EOS are Binance, Kucoin and Cobinhood.

Learn more in our How to Buy EOS guide.

EOS can currently be stored in any wallet that supports Ethereum ERC-20 tokens. These include hardware devices like the TREZOR or Ledger Nano S, as well as software options like Exodus or Jaxx. For a more comprehensive description of the different types of wallets, check out our guide to the Best EOS Wallets of 2018.

With its high transaction speeds, user-friendly development tools, and its proven team, EOS has the potential to help bring blockchain technology to mainstream enterprises. The road toward realizing that goal, however, is a long one, and there is already some significant resistance from the cryptocurrency/blockchain community. But if can prove that EOS is just as decentralized as its competitors while also offering numerous benefits over traditional blockchain technologies, EOS might become a major player in the next evolution of the decentralized economy.

The post What is EOS? | The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide appeared first on UNHASHED.



How Digital Signature and Blockchain Technology Can Help the Growth of Businesses?



Businesses today are quickly adapting to digital transformation. Whether it is something as simple as having a website or something as complicated as hosting applications over the cloud, business leaders are leaving no stone unturned to grow along with the evolving technology.

Inculcating digitization in business activities not only vouch for the proactiveness of the organization but at the same time lead to improved productivity and enhanced customer experience. From going digital to adapting to a cashless mechanism, organizations are gearing towards a whole new level of automation.

A major influence of the involvement of technology in day to day business operations has been the elimination of paperwork and replacing mundane arduous activities with automated tools. Sharing documents, papers, agreements, and getting them signed is fundamental to every business organization, and has become a bit complex in the business world during COVID-19 pandemic.

To date, all of these were done manually. Meaning that managers or employees would generate documents, sign them, and then send it to the other party. Upon receiving the document, the party would print the document, validate the same, and scan it back to the sending party. This process isn’t just consuming a great deal of time but also straining out energy from both ends. Not to forget the fact that manual processes are prone to errors.

We may take an example of CocoSign here. It does everything related to e-signature that a business might need to do.

Keeping all of this in mind, organizational leaders are now eyeing upon advanced tech to streamline the above process. The amalgamation of digital signatures and blockchain is an ideal example of the above.

Now, this is where we introduce the concept of digital signatures. But what are digital signatures?

What is a digital signature?

Unlike the traditional method of sending documents and getting them signed physically, digital signatures are powered as electronic signatures that can be accessed from any device and across the globe. Put simply, if you are the manager of a company sending an agreement say a sales agreement to a company named ABC. They can access and view the document online over the laptop or smartphone. In addition to the above, they can also sign the document electronically without having the need to print or scan them.

To know more about it, you may also read further details from CocoSign website.

Softwares that allow you to sign digitally come with multiple choices starting with the ease to simply type your name, or draw a sketch of the signature or even upload a photocopy of the original physical signature. Either way, you are relieved of the need to manually sign the document.

But that’s not the only advantage of using digital signatures as a replacement for manual ones. When a document is signed electronically it gets stored in the cloud for easy access and quick management. Now anytime a change is made to the document, both of the intervening parties are notified about the same and an alarm is raised. This ensures that under no circumstances is the document tampered or the content compromised.

In legal offices where every paper holds as much importance as the other, digital signatures serve the need for security as well as simplicity. Considering the fact that all of the documents are stored in the cloud, it further eliminates the need to stack piles of paper. The turnaround time reduces and productivity increases.

Fascinating, right?

This was digital signatures working alone. When this tech is fused with the blockchain technology, it further adds another layer of verification to the entire system. No doubt that e-signatures add authenticity to the document. With blockchain into play, organizational leaders can have much more flexibility over the document.

Ethereum, one of the most popular open-source platforms of blockchain technology is being used along with digital signatures. It adds am evidence to the document pinning the date and time when the document is signed. Leaders can easily gain access to the Ethereum public blockchain when faced with the need to confirm a document signature.

Additionally, blockchain also renders additional security to the document with encryption and protection protocols. The use of the hash algorithm makes it difficult to tamper a document without getting noticed. No wonder why the tech has garnered such huge attention.


Having said all of the above, it is pretty obvious that the fusion of digital signatures and blockchain technology will transform the way businesses validate agreements. If you are looking for a similar solution, contact a genuine e-signature service provider such as CocoSign.

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3 Reasons Why Bitcoin Price Could Fall in Q4/2020



2020 has been a rollercoaster year for Bitcoin. The lockdowns caused by the coronavirus pandemic earlier in the year pushed the crypto lower by almost 60 percent. Its crash shortly followed an equally aggressive rebound that took its price up by 220 percent.

It is safe to say that Bitcoin is sitting in a profitable position so far into the year. The cryptocurrency’s year-to-date performance at 50 percent above zero stands taller than the one logged by traditional markets, including the US benchmark S&P 500 index.

But entering the fourth and final quarter of 2020, the Bitcoin market struggles with the prospect of paring a good portion of its yearly gains, if not all. Here are three reasons why the cryptocurrency risks trending lower in the session ahead.

#1 US Election Uncertainty

Bitcoin moved almost in tandem with the US equities at the end of the third quarter. So it appears, the cryptocurrency traders were waiting for further clarity on the outcome of the US presidential election in November. But even when polls showed that the Democratic contender Joe Biden might win the presidency, Donald Trump spoiled the outlook.

The incumbent US president said that he wouldn’t leave the oval office quietly over his suspicions of voter fraud. Investors took his statement to heart. They dumped stocks the entire September 2020 to seek safety in cash. Bitcoin, meanwhile, also dived by 9 percent in the month despite closing the third quarter in extremely positive territory.

bitcoin, btcusd, btcusdt, xbtusd, cryptocurrency, Euro, EURUSD, cryptocurrency, dollar, dxy, s&p 500

Bitcoin-SPX correlation against the US election uncertainty. Source:

The month of October expects Bitcoin and Wall Street indexes to stay choppy, if not bearish. The cryptocurrency could therefore revisit previous support levels near $10,400, $10,200, and $10,000 as investors move into the safety of cash. Meanwhile, traders with a long-term outlook could cap the downside momentum by buying BTC at local lows.

#2 Delinquencies

Another factor that would test the Bitcoin and Wall Street bulls is the rise in bad loans in the US.

The lack of agreement over the second coronavirus stimulus package is a cause of concern for the unemployed and small and medium-sized businesses. With economists expecting no stimulus until the presidential election, the market is liable to see a rise in mortgages, loans, credit, and rental crimes in the fourth quarter.

That could leave finance stocks–the backbone of the US economy–lower. And sooner, its losses could ripple through the Bitcoin market, as traders start offloading their profitable positions to cover their losses on Wall Street. It is–again–because of the correlation between Bitcoin and the S&P 500.

#3 Coronavirus

The US markets will keep trading under the risks of the second wave of coronavirus infections. In the absence of a stimulus, followed by threats of another round of business lockdowns, investors may be forced to back into risk-off assets, including the US dollar and government bonds.

Earlier through February until March, a similar sentiment had caused the Bitcoin market to crash lower. Therefore, not unless there is fresh aid available for the US economy, the cryptocurrency may get trapped in the coronavirus-led sell-off sentiment.

The bottom line is that stimulus and liquidity can save Bitcoin from getting anywhere below $10,000. Traders should watch the development on Capitol Hill for further cues. Until then, the risk of major downside moves remain.


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President Maduro: Venezuela Seeks Opportunities To Use Cryptocurrency For Global Trade



  • Venezuela’s cryptocurrency story continues as the country’s President Nicolas Maduro has presented new use cases. 
  • A recent report informed that the South American nation is studying the possibility of using digital assets in trades alongside the national Petro. 
  • President Maduro has presented new anti-sanctions law in the Constituent National Assembly. In a recent speech, he asserted:

“The anti-sanctions law is the first response to give new strength to the use of petro and other cryptocurrencies, national and global, in domestic and foreign trade, so that all cryptocurrencies of the world, state and private, could be used. This is an important project that is under development.”

  • The news comes after Maduro suggested last year that his country could adopt cryptocurrency payments.
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  • Additionally, Venezuela signed a new tax agreement this summer that enabled the nation to start collecting taxes and fees in the Petro.
  • A study reported by CryptoPotato revealed that digital assets already play an essential role in the country’s struggling economy. Venezuela’s intensifying financial crisis has catalyzed significant interest in cryptocurrencies as people seek opportunities to escape the devaluating national currency.
  • The Bitcoin peer-to-peer volume exemplifies the growing interest in the primary cryptocurrency within the country. As per data from, the BTC P2P volume on LocalBitcoins has been continuously surging in the past several months.
Bitcoin P2P Trading Volume LocalBitcoins. Source:
Bitcoin P2P Trading Volume In Venezuela on LocalBitcoins. Source:
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