Connect with us


Whole Plant Medicine: Full-Spectrum CBD vs. Broad-Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolates



We’ve entered the age of CBD, and for your average person, it’s a confusing one. Every store sells CBD these days, and you may already have an idea of what CBD is. It’s derived from the cannabis plant, and it does not have a high effect like recreational cannabis. Reports show that CBD can help with pain, restlessness, anxiety, depression, seizures, and other ailments. Many people across the world swear by it, and ever since the 2018 Farm Bill Act was passed, the scientific community has been working to find out all the effects and benefits CBD has for patients.

CBD stands for cannabidiol, and it’s the second active ingredient found in the cannabis plant, but it is not psychoactive, unlike its counterpart THC. Buying CBD products are federally legal as long the product has less than 0.3 percent THC in it. It’s quite easy to find it in many convenience stores.

With that all said, there is still a lot to learn about the cannabis and hemp plant. For decades, misinformation and fear-mongering plagued the U.S., and it has only been recently when people are waking up to the plant’s full medical benefits. Learning more about CBD, and cannabis, in general, can help many people learn about all its benefits and help bring in a new age of medicine.

In this post, we’ll look at a few CBD terms: full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, CBD isolates, whole plant medicine and the entourage effect. This short guide will help you make sense of the whole plant medicine and the CBD world. Let’s get started.

What is Whole Plant Medicine?


Whole plant medicine is a term you don’t need to overthink. Whole plant medicine is simply any type of medical marijuana product that uses all of the chemical components and phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.

Phyto-what? A phytocannabinoid is a molecule that plants synthesize. In the cannabis plant, there are over 100 known phytocannabinoids, and they all offer benefits for humans and animals. Two of the most known phytocannabinoids are CBD and THC. We think of THC as that thing that gets us stoned but it has medicinal properties as well, such as more pain relief and anxiety relief.

Whole plant medicine uses it all. Look for the full-spectrum label on a CBD product, because otherwise, you may not be getting all the benefits cannabis can provide.

However, you may need to do a little digging to figure out if the product uses the entire plant or not. The CBD product may be full-spectrum, broad-spectrum or just an isolate.

If you want to take a class or tour about how CBD is made, check out our Hemp CBD Tour in the Denver area.

Full Spectrum CBD vs Broad Spectrum CBD vs CBD Isolates

Most CBD products are labeled as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD or CBD isolates. Each of these CBD products are considered cannabis concentrates so let’s break down these types of CBD so anyone with limited or extensive cannabis knowledge can understand.

CBD Isolates & Crystallines

What are CBD Isolates?

Photo Credit: CBD Distillery

A CBD isolate is any product that only has CBD and none of the other cannabinoids produced by the cannabis or hemp plant. It is considered the purest form of CBD because all other compounds have been removed.

Some CBD isolates come in the form of CBD crystals, CBD powder or CBD crystalline. CBD isolates can be less expensive compared to full-spectrum and may offer some benefits when taken in very high doses, but it doesn’t have the full entourage effect, which you’ll find out more in the last chapter of this article.

How Are CBD Isolates Made?

The CBD isolate process is quite interesting. Using extraction the CBD is removed from the plant, and the manufacturer purifies it for a while. This is to ensure that there is nothing else in the extract except the CBD.

Then, the CBD goes through a chilling process or winterization. This removes any contaminants leftover from the extraction process. All that’s left is pure CBD. It’s a complex process, but it delivers the purest form CBD available.

How to Use CBD Isolates?

You can use CBD powder or CBD crystalline in many ways, such as making edibles or consuming orally as a tincture or soft gel.

You can experiment by making different types of homemade edibles and tinctures, however, it is always recommended to start small. CBD is one of those medicines where a little goes a long way.

If you aren’t feeling any of the benefits from the CBD isolate, you may need a full or broad-spectrum CBD oil product to experience the entourage effect and full medical benefits.

Full-Spectrum CBD

What is Full-Spectrum CBD?

Full-spectrum CBD, or pure spectrum CBD, is any CBD product that contains the all the of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and fatty acids found in the entire hemp plant.

This type of CBD has over 100 different cannabinoids and here are a few you should expect; (CBD) Cannabidiol, (THC) Tetrahydrocannabinol, (CBG) Cannabigerol, (CBN) Cannabinol and (CBC) Cannabichromene.

Remember, even though there is THC, the typical hemp plant has very little THC, less than 0.3%.

Because all the cannabinoids are present, users tend to experience what is known as, the entourage effect. This means all the different cannabinoids work together, boosting each cannabinoid effect which creates a product that has improved therapeutic benefits that are more effective than CBD isolated products.

Full-spectrum vs. CBD Isolates

Full-spectrum CBD has all the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids found in the plant, whereas, CBD isolates are made up of purely 99.9% CBD. So it may be confusing to understand what is best to use when it comes to medicinal properties.

The Lautenberg Center for Immunology and Cancer Research in Israel conducted a study to find the effectiveness of full-plant extracts compared to CBD isolates.

In their summary they state, “In all of the tests, the isolated CBD was ineffective both before and after a certain dosage, while the effectiveness of the full-spectrum solution continued to increase as higher doses were administered. The results all indicate that CBD is only effective against swelling and pain at a certain dose, and that cannabis solution containing a full range of cannabinoids will continue to provide corresponding effects as the dosage is increased.”

They found that full-plant, full-spectrum CBD effectiveness continued to increase as long as the right doses were administered, whereas, CBD isolates were ineffective regardless of the dosage.

How is Full-Spectrum CBD Made?

There are a few ways full-spectrum CBD can be extracted from the hemp plant and this process has evolved over time. Full-spectrum has been known to be extracted by butane, CO2, alcohol, lipid infusion and more. However, because of the rising concern of using a harsh chemical such as butane, propane, and alcohol in cannabis products, these solvents have been used less and less.

Commercial CBD companies use an extraction machine and a process that is pretty straight forward.

Step 1: Add only the flowers

They add only the buds or flowers into the CBD extraction machine because this is where most of the trichomes and critical components house themselves.

Step 2: Decarboxylation process

This is the most fascinating part. Marijuana does not directly make the compounds CBD, THC, CBC or any of the cannabinoids present. The plant synthesizes a range of cannabinoids acids such as CBDA, THCA, THCVA, CBGA, CBCA (and many more) that must be activated through decarboxylation. This is the process of heating up the cannabinoid acids to transform them into the cannabinoids that interact with our endocannabinoid system.

So that’s exactly what the extraction machines does. It uses a combination of heat, pressure and a solvent, such as MCT oil, to pull out all of the phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and other chemical compounds present in the plant.

Once extracted into the MCT oil, this full-spectrum CBD oil can be used in a number of different products.

How to Use Full-Spectrum CBD?

Full-spectrum CBD usually comes in one of three forms; as a tincture, as a topical or as an oral medication such soft gel tablets.

Unlike most medicine, it’s pretty much impossible to overdose on it. With that said, it’s wise to follow the instructions on the product you’ve bought. It is recommended to the first start consuming in smaller doses, and then work your way up or adjust accordingly. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.

If the product contains an ample amount of THC, we encourage you to start small. Everyone handles THC differently, and someone with low tolerance may experience undesirable effects like paranoia or anxiety. Even if the product has very little THC, if you take a lot of it, you may feel some effects, though it will not be nearly as powerful as taking pure cannabis.

Though THC, when taken correctly, can have positive benefits too.

Broad-Spectrum CBD

Photo Credit: Tinnakorn Jorruang, Getty Images

What is Broad-Spectrum CBD?

Broad-spectrum CBD is very similar to full-spectrum as it uses all of the hemp plant’s cannabinoids except for THC which completely removed during the extraction process. If you’re sensitive to THC, or the state you’re in is laying down the law on THC, broad-spectrum CBD is a great way to get the effects you want without the high of THC.

How is Broad-Spectrum CBD Made?

Broad-spectrum CBD oil uses the same extraction method to full-spectrum, but there is an extra step added into the process. After decarboxylation, the extract goes through a chromatography process to separate the THC from the rest of the cannabinoids. The amount of THC content in hemp is almost nonexistent but broad-spectrum makes sure that every single bit is gone.

How to Use Broad-Spectrum CBD?

With broad-spectrum CBD oil, you don’t have to worry about consuming too much CBD, but you should follow the same instructions as the full-spectrum.

Take the smallest recommended amount, and then adjust from there according to how you react. Again, talk to your doctor if you are unsure how much you should take, or whether or not it can benefit you.

The good thing is that it’s impossible to feel any buzz from broad-spectrum because there is no THC in it whatsoever. Those who are sensitive to THC can rejoice at this fact.

The Entourage Effect

Now, let’s talk about the entourage effect definition. The entourage effect meaning is something you may hear thrown around in the CBD circles, but you may not understand what it is.

What is the Entourage Effect?

Photo credit: SatiMedUSA

Simply put, the entourage effect is the idea that whole plant medicine is better than isolates because all of the cannabis compounds and cannabinoids are working together in synergy. The results, a more effective medicine, with an increase in therapeutic benefits to relieve an array of ailments.

With over 100 phytocannabinoids, it is understandable that many people want them all, and not just isolated CBD compound. Here are some examples of what other parts of the cannabis plant may do for you.

Flavonoids: Cannabis flavonoids are called quercetin and they may have anti-inflammatory effects, as well as antiviral and antioxidant.

Terpenes: These molecules are responsible for cannabis’s iconic smell, and terpenes are commonly used in aromatherapy to relieve mood or restlessness. If you want CBD oil with terpenes, look for “terpenes CBD” or “CBD terpenes on the label.”

The cannabis or hemp plant has so many other cannabinoids as well, and as the science on it continues to develop, there may be other benefits found.

Some people may prefer isolates because it’s easier to consume more CBD that way, but the entourage effect is becoming a more popular philosophy. Many cannabis consumers and marketers point out the importance of the entourage effect.

The science on the entourage effect is still out. You can find information online saying it exists, saying it doesn’t exist, or findings that are a little bit in-between. Because the curtain on cannabis study isn’t fully lifted, there is a lot we still don’t know about it.

Besides the entourage effect, CBD science is still unknown. It has different effects on different people, and there is no risk in trying it out for yourself and seeing how it affects you. Chances are, you may find some benefit from taking CBD, be it full or isolated.

Article Recap:

CBD is federally legal as long as the THC content level is under 0.3%.

Whole plant medicine is any type of marijuana product that uses all of the chemical components and phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.

CBD Isolates vs Full-spectrum vs. Broad-spectrum: Full-spectrum CBD has all the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids found in the plant, whereas, CBD isolates are made up of purely 99.9% CBD. Broad-spectrum CBD oil is the same as full-spectrum except THC is removed.

The entourage effect is the idea that whole plant medicine is better than isolates because all of the cannabis compounds and cannabinoids are working together in synergy.

The post Whole Plant Medicine: Full-Spectrum CBD vs. Broad-Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolates appeared first on Colorado Cannabis Tours and 420 Hotels.



The FATF, Cryptocurrencies, and the Philippines



In an earlier article on BitPinas, we briefly looked at the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the international body tasked to promote measures against money laundering and terrorist financing. With 200+ member countries, the FATF recommends what the countries must do with regards to money laundering and terrorist financing. By the way, these are not just recommendations. It simply must be complied, otherwise there will be consequences. In this article, we’ll expand more on the FATF.

The FATF’s Power

Table of Contents

Consider the year 2000, when the FATF blacklisted the Philippines for failing to address money laundering issues. At that time, the FATF said the country lacked basic anti-money laundering regulations and specific legislation to criminalize the activity. When the FATF blacklisted a country, apart of course from the spectacle of being shamed in the international community of countries, any financial transaction going into the country would be scrutinized more by banks, thus foreign companies might be discouraged from doing business here, while companies here would find it hard to do business transactions with foreign partners.

Nevermind that at that time, the country was about to force a president out of office and was in a transitory phase. The peso-dollar exchange rate would eventually rise up to around Php 56.56 four years later. Not to mention that in 2001, after the September 11 attacks in the U.S., global efforts to AML reporting intensified to combat financing of terrorism as well (CFT). It was also in that year when the Philippines passed the Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001 (AMLA).

So what I’m saying is that the FATF is pretty powerful. And their recommendations have consequences if a country did not comply. Case in point, the Philippines barely escaped being blacklisted again in 2017. However, in more recent news, it appears the country is on the verge of being blacklisted again if certain amendments to the AMLA are not passed.

The FATF Recommendations

First published in 1990, the 40 Recommendations are the primary policies of the FATF it tasked its member countries to act upon, through ways like legislation and of course implementation. These recommendations are the global standards in anti-money laundering and they are continually updated to keep up with the changing techniques of criminals and simply to keep up with the times.

In 2018, the FATF updated the recommendations to include cryptocurrencies and cryptocurrency companies within its scope, effectively integrating the entire industry into the global financial system, at least on paper. The countries then have to create their legislation in order to enforce these rules to cryptocurrency companies, or virtual asset service providers (VASPs), a very broad term that includes cryptocurrency exchanges and platforms except non-custodial platforms.

Briefly, the 40 recommendations require the following:

  • Criminalize money laundering
  • Enable authorities to confiscate proceeds from money laundering
  • Establish a financial intelligence unit
  • Implement relevant international conventions
  • Implement customer due diligence
  • Implement record keeping
  • Implement suspicious transaction reporting
  • Coordinate with other countries when investigating and prosecuting money laundering

The FATF has also added 9 special recommendations in relation to terrorist financing. You can check the entire forty recommendations here.

What about the Cryptocurrency Industry?

As for much of the recommendations as well as other finance-related laws, at least here in the Philippines, locally-licensed virtual currency exchanges are following the guidelines from the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). Circular No. 944 in 2017 established the guidelines for virtual currency exchanges, which include transactional requirements and strict following of the country’s anti-money laundering law. It’s the reason why your go-to local cryptocurrency platform has tiered limits and thresholds in how much you can transact depending on the amount of information about yourself that you submit to them.

Globally, of particular concern is the “Travel Rule”, which is no. 16 in the FATF recommendations. Simply put, it requires that when doing a cryptocurrency transfer, the sender’s personal information, such as his name, should “travel” along with the transaction. Meaning, if Sender from Exchange A sends bitcoin to Receiver in Wallet B, Exchange A must pass along personal information of Sender to Wallet B. More on the subject is explained here.

The problem is that the blockchain simply does not transfer personal information. If you are familiar with a bitcoin transaction, in the blockchain, you will only see the sender address, the amount, the fee, and the receiver address. That’s it. It does not need other information because every transaction completed on the blockchain is final.

So with the FATF instructing countries to commit to these recommendations and apply it to cryptocurrency companies within their jurisdictions, it falls upon the cryptocurrency companies to comply. Otherwise the countries, in order to not suffer consequences from the FATF, would force them out of their jurisdictions.

At the moment, there are companies working on solutions to address the travel rule for cryptocurrency companies. Examples include CipherTrace’s TRISA and openVASP. Another initiative, interVASP, looks into standardizing the payload instructions so that VASPs can better communicate with each other. Finally, solutions like Elliptic, help in making VASPs more compliant with existing anti-money laundering rules.

I recommend the article “What is the FATF Travel Rule” as next the reading material if you find this topic enjoyable. Up next, we will briefly look at the 2020 report from the FATF about potential red flag indicators.

This article is published on BitPinas: The FATF, Cryptocurrencies, and the Philippines

About BitPinas:

BitPinas is an independent blockchain, finance, and cryptocurrency news site covering the crypto and blockchain news and developments in the Philippines. We aim to be the website where you can find all information on blockchain and crypto in the Philippines. We are read by investors and enthusiasts alike, including crypto/blockchain company founders and government personnel. Contact [email protected] for more information, consulting advice, and partnerships. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Contact and Subscribe to BitPinas:

  • Join BitPinas on Telegram
  • Follow on Facebook and Twitter for the latest news and updates
  • Disclaimer: All articles on BitPinas must be treated as not an investment adviceReaders are encouraged to do their own research. This website is not responsible for any loss incurred by the reader, nor will it take credit for their gains.
  • For news tips, partnership discussions, or press release submissions, please send to [email protected]


Continue Reading


Ethereum Price Analysis: ETH Poised For Rebound To $360




  • Ethereum price retests support at $310 twice in September.
  • A double-bottom pattern in the 4-hour range predicts recovery to $360 in the near term.

After trading highs of $489 at the beginning of September, the smart contract token has tested support at $310 twice. Recovery has been capped under $400 with Ether suffering rejection at $390 severally. The recent slump saw Ethereum dive below key support areas at $380, $360, and $340. The unstoppable declines continued to $310 before a reversal came into the picture.



At the time of writing, Ethereum is trading at $323 even as bulls rush to take back control in a bid to stop losses from extending below the critical $310. Note that if ETH dips below $300, the price could explore lows towards $250 before a significant correction comes into the picture.

A double-bottom pattern has been spotted on the 4-hour chart. If the pattern is confirmed, Ethereum could be on the verge of a significant correction. Double-bottom patterns highlight areas of demand and are often used in technical analysis to predict reversal points and the extent to which the incoming bullish momentum will go. However, it is essential to realize that double-bottom patterns must be used with other technical indicators to validate the upward movement in the price.

Read also: Ethereum’s Accumulation Trend Remains Unfazed by Price Downturn

ETH/USD 4-hour chart

ETH/USD price chart
ETH/USD price chart by Tradingview

The ongoing bullish momentum is supported by the Relative Strength Index (RSI) as it recovers from the oversold region. Similarly, IntoTheBlock’s IOMAP shows a lack of a formidable supply area with the power to delay the price action to $360. However, the strongest seller congestion zone lies between $362 and $373. Here, near 700,000 addresses previously bought $10.50 million ETH.




ETH IOMAP chart by IntoTheBlock

On the flip side, the most critical support holds in the range between $295 and $304. Around 850,000 addresses purchased 1.93 million ETH in the area. In this case, buyers have a task to hold Ethereum above $310 if not $320, and focus on recovery towards the toughest supply area.

Ethereum Intraday Levels

Spot rate: $323

Relative change: 2.93

Percentage change: 0.91%

Volatility: Low

Trend: Bullish

Read more: Ethereum Locked in DeFi Soars to a Fresh ATH

To get the daily price analysis, Follow us on TradingView

Author: John Isige

John is a talented writer with over two years of experience actively contributing to the cryptocurrency industry by providing credible, interesting and easy to read the content. His main focus is on cryptocurrency price analysis and industry news coverage. Lets follow him on Twitter at @jjisige


Continue Reading


No Compensation for MakerDAO Vault Owners After Governance Vote



MakerDAO vault holders who lost about $2.5 million during Black Thursday will not receive any compensation following a governance vote that ended on Tuesday. While decentralized finance (DeFi) continues to garner attention, issues like the type suffered by the MakerDAO project earlier in the year continue to plague the market as a whole.

MKR Holders Vote Against Compensating Affected Vault Owners

Following the conclusion of voting on the revised MakerDAO governance poll, vault owners affected during the Black Thursday crash of mid-March will not receive any compensation. This outcome is due to the fact that 65% of the participants voted against compensating the $2.5 million losses incurred by vault owners.

Some reactions to the news on social media say the decision to not compensate vault owners sets a not so ideal precedent. With Maker (MKR) token holders unaffected by the forced liquidations of March 12, 2020, it appears only vault owners were the real losers.

Amid the Black Thursday panic, the crypto arena saw a massive sell-off of tokens leading to a sharp decline in price across the market. The situation mirrored the events seen in the larger investment scene as fear over the coronavirus pandemic saw investors electing to liquidate their assets for cash.

You Might Also Like:

A Black Swan Event

For the MakerDAO project, Black Thursday turned out to be a ‘black swan’ event. As the price of Ethereum (ETH) fell on that fateful Thursday, the network suffered massive congestion which prevented price oracles from updating ETH/USD price in real-time.

With the price oracles failing, undercollateralized vault owners suffered forced liquidations. Some users took advantage of the situation to launch opportunistic profiteering attacks with zero bid and half bids. These rogue actors were able to liquidate ETH from vault owners with little or no DAI given in collateral.

MakerDAO lost $6.65 million in DAI stablecoin during the incident with $4 million of this shortfall being actual “bad debt” for the project. The DeFi lending project was able to service the bad debt via debt auction a few weeks later.

In the aftermath of the forced liquidations on Black Thursday, some affected vault owners sued the Maker Foundation for not providing adequate information about the risks involved in holding collateralized debt positions (CDP).

Binance Futures 50 USDT FREE Voucher: Use this link to register & get 10% off fees and 50 USDT when trading 500 USDT (limited – first 200 sign-ups & exclusive to CryptoPotato).

Click here to start trading on BitMEX and receive 10% discount on fees for 6 months.


Continue Reading